Testicular Cancer: Staging
Staging of testicular cancer is necessary to determine the most effective therapy. It takes into account the size of the tumor, the extent it has spread to lymph nodes, and whether it has metastasized or spread to other organs.
- Stage I Cancer is confined to the testicle.
- Stage II Cancer has spread to lymph nodes in the abdominal cavity only but not to lymph nodes in other parts of the body or to distant organs.
- Stage III Cancer has spread to any site beyond the abdominal lymph nodes,
A small number of germ cell tumors occur in the rear abdomen or the chest area between the lungs. In these cases the scrotal ultrasound will be negative. These germ cell tumors are diagnosed by biopsy and are treated with chemotherapy.