Vaginal dysplasia, also known as vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), starts inside the vagina. It is a condition in which the skin of the vagina undergoes abnormal changes. The vagina is the muscular tube that connects the uterus (womb) to your outside genitals. It is sometimes called the birth canal. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN) can range in severity from mild to severe. Women who have VAIN often do not have any symptoms. The most common symptoms are abnormal vaginal bleeding, such as bleeding after vaginal intercourse or bleeding in between periods, or an abnormal vaginal discharge. If left untreated, in some cases VAIN can progress to vaginal cancer.
VAIN is classified as low grade or high grade, depending on the severity of the abnormality. Overall, VAIN is relatively rare. It is far less common than cervical or vulvar dysplasia. It may be associated with cervical or vulvar dysplasia, meaning that it is possible to have more than one type of dysplasia at the same time. It is most common in women with a history of cervical dysplasia. It is typically found in women between the ages of 40 and 60, although it can occur at any age.