Operations to remove the cancer may include the following:
Breast-conserving surgery This approach removes the cancer while leaving as much of the breast as possible. This includes lumpectomy (removal of the lump with some surrounding tissue at the margin of the tumor), quadrantectomy (removal of one quarter, or quadrant, of the breast), and segmental mastectomy (removal of the cancer as well as some of the breast tissue around the tumor and the lining over the chest muscles below the tumor).
Modified radical mastectomy In this operation, the surgeon removes the breast, lymph nodes under the arm, and the lining over the chest muscles. In some cases, part of the chest wall muscles will be removed as well. This may be followed by reconstructive surgery to reshape the breast.
Total mastectomy This surgery, also called simple mastectomy, removes the entire breast.
Lymph node removal Following surgery, the patient’s lymph nodes may be removed and a sample of tissue taken, to check if the cancer has spread. In what is called a sentinel lymph node biopsy, some of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed. In a radical lymph node dissection, most or all of the lymph nodes in the tumor area are removed. This procedure is also called a lymphadenectomy.
A common side-effect of breast cancer surgery is lymphedema, swelling in the arms, hands, fingers, shoulders or chest, caused by fluid retention in the body. Columbia surgeons have developed innovative protocols to prevent lymphedema following surgery for breast cancer.
Oncoplastic breast surgery Patients may also have concerns about how surgery might affect their appearance. Surgeons at Columbia’s Clinical Breast Cancer Program are fully versed in Oncoplastic Surgical techniques. These techniques are designed to give the patients excellent cosmetic results while maintaining sound oncologic principles following major resection from the breast cancers.
More information can be found here http://www.breastmd.org/